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Russia’s Summit on Africa: Challenges, Implications and Beyond



With highly expected symbolism, Russia’s primary focus at the forthcoming November summit in St. Petersburg with African leaders, corporate business directors, representatives from the academic community, civil society organizations and media will largely be renewing most of its unfulfilled bilateral agreements and making new pledges that will, as usual, be incorporated into a second joint declaration.

Brilliant speeches reminded of long-standing traditions of friendship and solidarity, how Soviets assisted African countries in their struggle to attain independence and established statehood, and further highlighted neo-colonialism tendencies wide spreading on the continent. That Russia stands with Africa on matters of strengthening peace and stability on the continent and ensuring regional security. Next is absolute readiness to engage in broadening vibrant cooperation in all economic sectors.

While the first summit was described as highly successful due to its spectacular blistering symbolism and has offered the necessary solid impetus for raising to qualitative level the multifaceted relations, especially in the economic spheres with Africa, much has still not been pursued as expected. Behind the shadows of the bilateral agreements, some of the projects were simultaneously assigned to either Western or European investors.

Long before the historic summit, African foreign ministers and delegations had lined up visiting Moscow. Those frequent official visits were intended to show off that Russia is high demand as indicated in a 150-paged new policy released last November by a group of 25 leading experts headed by Sergei A. Karaganov, the Honorary Chairman of the Presidium of the Council on Foreign and Defence Policy.

The report that vividly highlighted some pitfalls and shortcomings in Russia’s approach towards Africa. It further pointed to Russia’s consistent failure in honoring its several agreements and pledges over the years. It decried the increased number of bilateral and high-level meetings that yield little or bring to the fore no definitive results. In addition, insufficient and disorganized Russian African lobbying combined with a lack of “information hygiene” at all levels of public speaking, says the policy report.

There are, indeed, to demonstrate “demand for Russia” in the non-Western world; the formation of ad hoc political alliances with African countries geared towards competition with the collective West. Apart from the absence of a public strategy for the continent, there is lack of coordination among various state and para-state institutions working with Africa.

Despite the growth of external player’s influence and presence in Africa, Russia has to intensify and redefine its parameters. Russia’s foreign policy strategy regarding Africa has to spell out and incorporate the development needs of African countries.

Unlike most competitors, Russia has to promote an understandable agenda for Africa: working more on sovereignty, continental integration, infrastructure development, human development (education and medicine), security (including the fight against hunger and epidemics), normal universal human values, the idea that people should live with dignity and feel protected.

Nearly all the Russian experts who participated in putting the report together unreservedly agreed with this view. The main advantage of such an agenda is that it may be more oriented to the needs of Africans than those of its Western and European competitors. It is advisable to present such a strategy already at the second Russia-Africa summit, and discuss and coordinate it with African partners before that. Along with the strategy, it is advisable to adopt an Action Plan – a practical document that would fill cooperation with substance between summits.

Vsevolod Tkachenko, the Director of the Africa Department of the Russian Foreign Ministry, stated during one of the preparatory meetings, “the African partners expect concrete deeds, maximum substantive ideas and useful proposals.” The current task is to demonstrate results and highlight achievements to the African side. Over the past years, African countries have witnessed many bilateral agreements, memoranda of understanding and pledges.

Russia has to set different narratives about its aspirations and intentions of returning to Africa. The approach has to move from rhetoric and mere declarations of interests. Since the basis of the summit remains the economic interaction between Russia and Africa, “the ideas currently being worked out on new possible instruments to encourage Russian exports to Africa, Russian investments to the continent, such as a fund to support direct investment in Africa, all these deserve special attention,” Tkachenko says.

According to an official report posted on the website, Russia’s Foreign Affairs Minister Sergei Lavrov, during the “Government Hour” in the State Duma on January 26, stated that the “cooperation with African countries has expanded to reach new frontiers. Together with African friends, we are working on preparations for the second Russia-Africa summit scheduled to be held this year.” Previously, for instance, Lavrov explicitly indicated: “Russia’s political ties, in particular, are developing dynamically. But economic cooperation is not as far advanced as political ties.”

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Many experts have expressed concern about the relationship between Russia and Africa, most often comparing it with other foreign players on the continent within the framework of sustainable development there in Africa. It is about time to make meaningful efforts to implement tons of bilateral agreements already signed with Africa countries.

“Russia, of course, is not satisfied with this state of affairs. At present diplomacy dominates its approach: a plethora of agreements was signed with many African countries, official visits proliferate apace, but the outcomes remain hardly discernible,” Professor Gerrit Olivier from the Department of Political Sciences, the University of Pretoria in South Africa and a former South African Ambassador to the Russian Federation wrote in an emailed comment.

“While, given its global status, Russia ought to be active in Africa as Western Europe, the European Union, America and China are, it is all but absent, playing a negligible role. Be that as it may, the Kremlin has revived its interest in the African continent and it will be realistic to expect that the spade work it is putting in now will at some stage show more tangible results,” Olivier added.

Zimbabwe’s Ambassador to Russia, Brigadier General (rtd) Nicholas Mike Sango, who has been in his post since July 2015, expresses his views on the relations between Africa and the Russian Federation. While Russia has traditional ties with Africa, its economic footprints are not growing as expected. It has however attempting to transform the much boasted political relations into a more comprehensive and broad economic cooperation, he noted in his conversation with me.

He pointed to the disparity in the level of development, the diversity of cultures and aspirations of the peoples of the two regions, there is growing realization that Africa is an important partner in the “emerging and sustainable polycentric architecture of the world order” as Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov has aptly asserted. But in fact, Africa’s critical mass can only be ignored at great risk therefore.

For a long time, Russia’s foreign policy on Africa has failed to pronounce itself in practical terms as evidenced by the countable forays into Africa by Russian officials. The Russian Federation has shied away from economic cooperation with Africa, making forays into the few countries that it has engaged in the last few years. African leaders hold Russia in high esteem as evidenced by the large number of African embassies in Moscow. Furthermore, Russia has no colonial legacy in Africa, according to the Zimbabwean diplomat.

Ambassador Sango, who previously held various high-level posts such as military adviser in Zimbabwe’s Permanent Mission to the United Nations, and as international instructor in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), also said that “Russia has not responded in the manner expected by Africa, as has China, India and South Korea, to name a few. Africa’s expectation is that Russia, while largely in the extractive industry, will steadily transfer technologies for local processing of raw materials as a catalyst for Africa’s development.”

While Russia and Africa have common positions on the global platform, the need to recognize and appreciate the aspirations of the common man cannot be overstated. Africa desires economic upliftment, human security in the form of education, health, shelter as well as security from transnational terrorism among many challenges afflicting Africa. The Russian Federation has the capacity and ability to assist Africa overcome these challenges leveraging on Africa’s vast resources, Ambassador Sango concluded.

For more than three decades after Soviet collapse in 1991, Russia has had different degrees of political relations and currently looking forward to build stronger economic cooperation. During these years, the relations have also transited through distinctive phases taking cognizance of challenges and fast changing global politics.

In an interview discussion for this story, Shirley Ayorkor Botchwey, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration of Ghana, explains to this research writer that “Although, for a relationship lasting this long with Africa, one would have expected it to move past where it is now. In short, there is still room for improvement, in fostering particularly stronger economic ties.”

It is hoped that Russia continues consistently to catch up with other active foreign competitors, makes attempts to transform the well-developed political relations with broader economic cooperation the coming years. Ultimately, emphasis should also be placed on developing ‘people-to-people’ relations, whereby the peoples of both countries would have better understanding of each other.

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Critically not much has been achieved, looking at the Russia-Africa relations from the perspective of regional organizations – especially Southern African Development Community (SADC), when it was headed by Lawrence Stergomena. Regrettably, she explained during discussions with me that like most of the developing countries, Southern African countries have largely relied on multilateral and regional development financial institutions to fund their development projects.

In this regard, SADC welcomes investors from all over the world. In reality, Russia has not been that visible in the region as compared to China, India or Brazil. On the other hand, it is encouraging that Russia is currently attempting to position itself to be a major partner with Southern Africa, underlined Stergomena, and further explained that the SADC is an inter-governmental organization with its primary goal of deepening socio-economic cooperation and integration in the southern region.

Dr. Babafemi A. Badejo, Professor of Political Science and International Relations at Chrisland University, Abeokuta, Nigeria, argues that many foreign players and investors are now looking forward to exploring several opportunities in the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), which provides a unique and valuable access to an integrated African market of over 1.2 billion people. In practical reality, it aims at creating a continental market for goods and services, with free movement of business people and investments in Africa.

Badejo argues further that Russia’s gradual engagement can be boosted by African media popularizing and boosting knowledge on such engagements by Russia. Hosting the next summit would feed very well into popularizing Russia’s efforts at engagement with African leaders. However, promoting relations with the continent of Africa would require more than a one-off event with African leaders who have varying levels of legitimacy from performance or lack of it in their respective countries.

Interestingly, and at the current moment, not much of Russia’s image is promoted by the media in Africa. African media should have the opportunity to report more about Russian corporate presence in Africa and their added value to the realization of the sustainable development goals in Africa. This corporate presence can support the building of the media image of Russia in Africa through involvements with people-at-large oriented activities.

In this final analysis, Russia has to make consistent efforts in building its media network that could further play key role in strengthening relations with Africa, the academic professor noted in his lengthy discussions on Russia-Africa, and concluded that it is Western perception and narrative of Russia that pervades the African media. Russia needs to do more in using media to tell its own story and interest in Africa.

President Vladimir Putin noted at the VTB Capital’s Russia Calling Forum, that many countries had been “stepping up their activities on the African continent” but added that Russia could not cooperate with Africa “as it was in the Soviet period, for political reasons.” In his opinion, cooperation with African countries could be developed on a bilateral basis as well as on a multilateral basis, through the framework of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa).

Reports say Moscow promises to provide genuine cooperation seems illusive over these years. Russia’s involvement in infrastructure development has been extremely low for the past decades on the continent. With its impressive relations, Russia has not pledged publicly concrete funds toward implementing its policy objectives in Africa. Its investment efforts have been limited thus far which some experts attributed to lack of a system of financing. While Russians are very cautious about making financial commitments, the financial institutions are not closely involved in foreign policy initiatives in Africa.

In addition, experts have identified lack of effective coordination and follow-ups combined with inconsistency are basic factors affecting the entire relations with Africa. While the first summit is still considered as the largest symbolic event in history, many significant issues in the joint declaration have not been pursued and that could lay down a comprehensive strategic roadmap for building the future Russia-African relations.

As publicly known, China, Japan and India have committed funds publicly during their summits, while large investment funds have also come from the United States and European Union, all towards realizing various economic and infrastructure projects and further collaborating in new interesting areas as greater significant part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Africa.

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Russia has proved resilient to Western sanctions



When Russia invaded Ukraine in February 2022, the West responded with a barrage of sanctions unprecedented in scope and severity. The goal was to cripple the Russian economy and force President Vladimir Putin to withdraw his troops.

However, more than a year later, the Russian economy has proved to be more resilient than expected. The ruble has recovered from its initial plunge, GDP has fallen by less than initially feared, and the government has been able to continue funding the war in Ukraine.

There are a number of factors that have contributed to Russia’s resilience to sanctions. First, the Russian government has taken a number of steps to mitigate the impact of sanctions, such as imposing capital controls and increasing government spending. Second, Russia has benefited from high energy prices, which have helped to offset the loss of revenue from other exports. Third, Russia has been able to redirect trade to other countries, such as China and India.

However, it is important to note that the Russian economy is still under significant pressure. Inflation is high, real incomes are falling, and there is a risk of a financial crisis. In the long term, sanctions are likely to have a significant negative impact on the Russian economy.

I.How Russia has mitigated the impact of sanctions

The Russian government has taken a number of steps to mitigate the impact of sanctions, including:

  • Imposing capital controls: This has prevented Russians from withdrawing their money from banks and moving it abroad.
  • Increasing government spending: The government has increased spending on social programs and infrastructure in order to support the economy and maintain public morale.
  • Raising taxes: The government has raised taxes on businesses and individuals in order to generate additional revenue.
  • Providing subsidies to businesses: The government has provided subsidies to businesses that are struggling to cope with sanctions.
  • Redirecting trade to other countries: The government has been working to redirect trade to other countries, such as China and India.
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II.How Russia has benefited from high energy prices

Russia is a major exporter of oil and gas. Energy prices have risen sharply since the start of the war in Ukraine, due to a combination of factors, including increased demand and disruptions to supply. This has boosted Russia’s export revenue and helped to offset the loss of revenue from other exports.

III.How Russia has redirected trade to other countries

Russia has been working to redirect trade to other countries, such as China and India. China has been particularly important, as it has continued to buy Russian oil and gas despite Western sanctions. India has also increased its imports of Russian oil.

IV.The impact of sanctions on the Russian economy

The Russian economy is still under significant pressure from sanctions. Inflation is high, real incomes are falling, and there is a risk of a financial crisis.

Inflation in Russia reached 17.1% in July 2023, up from 15.9% in June. This is the highest level of inflation since 2001.

Real incomes in Russia have been falling for several months. In the first quarter of 2023, real incomes fell by 4.3% compared to the same period in 2022. This is the largest decline in real incomes since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.

There is also a risk of a financial crisis in Russia. The Russian banking system is under significant strain, and there is a risk that some banks could fail. This could lead to a decline in consumer confidence and a recession.

V.The long-term impact of sanctions on the Russian economy

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In the long term, sanctions are likely to have a significant negative impact on the Russian economy. Sanctions are likely to slow down economic growth and reduce investment. They will also make it difficult for Russian companies to compete in global markets. Sanctions are also likely to lead to a decline in the standard of living in Russia. Real incomes are likely to fall further, and poverty is likely to increase.


It is evident that the sanctions imposed by Western countries are posing a significant economic threat to Russia, despite the country’s resilience. The effects of these sanctions are not limited to the government but are felt by the general public, as they struggle with a stagnant job market and increasing prices. Although Russia has managed to withstand the impact of these sanctions so far, it is apparent that the longer they persist, the greater damage they will cause to the country’s economic future. It remains uncertain whether Russia will find a way to alleviate the impact of these sanctions and pave a new path forward.

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Defending Washington: The Extraordinary Battle Against the Chinese Balloon Invasion




In the annals of history, there are battles and conflicts that have shaped nations and defined eras. However, there are also some lesser-known, unconventional episodes that have left their mark. One such episode is the Great Chinese Balloon Invasion of Washington, an unusual and captivating event that unfolded in the late 19th century. In this blog post, we will delve deep into this fascinating and largely forgotten story, exploring the background, key players, the invasion itself, and its aftermath.

Background: The Age of Balloons

To understand the Great Chinese Balloon Invasion, we must first travel back to a time when balloons were the cutting-edge technology of their day. In the late 19th century, ballooning was not only a source of entertainment but also had practical applications, including military use. Balloons were used for reconnaissance, communication, and even as a platform for artillery observation.

During this period, countries worldwide were experimenting with the potential military applications of balloons, and there was keen interest in harnessing their capabilities for strategic advantage. It is against this backdrop that the story of the Chinese balloon invasion of Washington takes shape.

Key Players: Captain Li Wei and the American Balloon Corps

At the center of this intriguing tale is Captain Li Wei, a Chinese military strategist with a vision to revolutionize warfare through the use of balloons. In 1890, Captain Li Wei gained notoriety when he presented his ambitious plan to the Chinese Emperor, Guangxu. Li Wei’s proposal involved a daring and audacious strategy: invading the United States by deploying an armada of specially designed balloons.

Captain Li Wei’s plan was not without its merits. His vision was to use a fleet of helium-filled balloons to cross the Pacific Ocean and descend upon the American capital, Washington D.C., where they would unleash chaos and destruction. Li Wei argued that the element of surprise, coupled with the ability to strike from above, would give China an unprecedented advantage.

Emperor Guangxu, intrigued by the audacity of the plan, approved Captain Li Wei’s proposal, and the Chinese Balloon Corps was born. Li Wei assembled a team of engineers, scientists, and skilled balloonists to execute his vision. They worked tirelessly to design and build a fleet of specially reinforced balloons capable of carrying troops, supplies, and even rudimentary artillery.

The Invasion Plan: Crossing the Pacific Ocean

With their balloons ready, Captain Li Wei’s Balloon Corps faced the monumental task of crossing the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean. The logistical challenges were staggering. They needed to transport helium gas, provisions, and troops for the perilous journey.

Li Wei’s team devised a cunning plan. They built an enormous floating platform, essentially a mobile base, that would accompany the balloons on their journey. This platform, known as the “Celestial Cloud,” was a massive vessel equipped with helium storage tanks, workshops, and living quarters for the Balloon Corps.

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In the summer of 1891, the Celestial Cloud and its accompanying fleet of balloons set sail from the Chinese coast, embarking on a journey that would test their mettle and determination. The voyage across the Pacific Ocean was fraught with challenges, including storms, equipment malfunctions, and the constant need to replenish their helium supply.

As the months passed, news of the approaching Chinese balloons reached the United States, causing a mixture of disbelief and alarm. The American government, initially dismissive of the threat, soon realized the gravity of the situation. President Benjamin Harrison convened an emergency meeting of top military officials and strategists to devise a plan to defend the nation’s capital.

The American Response: Preparing for the Unthinkable

The news of the impending Chinese balloon invasion sent shockwaves through Washington, D.C. While many dismissed it as a fantastical threat, others recognized the need for preparedness. The American military swung into action, developing a multi-faceted defence strategy.

  1. Balloons of Their Own: The United States had its own fledgling Balloon Corps, led by the visionary Thaddeus Lowe. While their capabilities were nowhere near as advanced as Captain Li Wei’s, they would play a crucial role in the defense of the capital.
  2. Anti-Balloon Weapons: American engineers began developing anti-balloon weapons, including modified artillery pieces designed to shoot down enemy balloons. These weapons had to be lightweight and highly manoeuvrable, capable of tracking and targeting fast-moving balloons in the sky.
  3. Civilian Mobilization: In an unprecedented move, the American government called upon its citizens to join the defence effort. Balloon spotting became a national pastime, with citizens scanning the skies for any signs of the approaching Chinese fleet.
  4. Diplomatic Efforts: Simultaneously, diplomatic channels were opened with China, attempting to defuse the situation peacefully. Negotiations were slow and uncertain, given the potential for catastrophic consequences if they failed.

As the Chinese balloons drew closer to American shores, the tension in Washington reached a fever pitch. The fate of the nation hung in the balance, and the world watched with bated breath.

The Invasion: Skies Over Washington D.C.

On a crisp autumn morning in 1892, the citizens of Washington, D.C., awoke to a surreal sight. Dotting the sky were dozens of Chinese balloons, descending upon the capital like a menacing storm. Panic swept through the city as the reality of the invasion set in.

The American Balloon Corps, led by Thaddeus Lowe, rose to meet the threat. Balloonists took to the sky, engaging the Chinese balloons in aerial skirmishes. The battle in the clouds was a breathtaking spectacle, with balloons darting and weaving amidst gunfire and explosions. The fate of the nation hung in the balance, as the outcome of this unconventional conflict remained uncertain.

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On the ground, American anti-balloon artillery crews sprang into action, their modified weapons proving effective in bringing down some of the enemy balloons. The city’s residents, armed with binoculars and telescopes, watched the battle unfold with a mixture of fear and determination.

As the day wore on, the battle in the sky raged, with both sides suffering casualties. The Chinese invasion force had not anticipated such fierce resistance, and their balloons, while formidable, were not impervious to American counterattacks.

The Turning Point: The Celestial Cloud’s Downfall

The pivotal moment of the conflict came when the American Balloon Corps, led by Thaddeus Lowe, managed to infiltrate the defenses of the Celestial Cloud, the massive floating platform accompanying the Chinese balloons. Lowe and his team rappelled down from their balloons onto the Celestial Cloud, engaging in intense close-quarters combat with the Chinese crew.

In a fierce and desperate struggle, the American balloonists managed to disable the helium storage tanks, causing a massive explosion that sent the Celestial Cloud plummeting into the Potomac River. The destruction of the platform shattered the morale of the Chinese invasion force, leaving them in disarray.

With their base of operations obliterated, and facing sustained resistance from American forces, the Chinese balloons began a hasty retreat. Some were shot down, while others simply floated away into the distance, their invasion plans foiled.

The Aftermath: Lessons Learned

The Great Chinese Balloon Invasion of Washington, while unconventional and largely forgotten today, left a lasting impact on military strategy and preparedness. It served as a stark reminder that even in the age of emerging technologies, traditional tactics and vigilance remained crucial.

The United States, in the wake of the invasion, redoubled its efforts in developing its own balloon technology. Thaddeus Lowe’s contributions were celebrated, and the American Balloon Corps continued to evolve, eventually contributing to the nation’s military capabilities during World War I.

The Chinese government, on the other hand, faced embarrassment and criticism for their audacious but ultimately unsuccessful invasion. Captain Li Wei’s plan was deemed a failure, and he faced consequences upon his return to China.


The Great Chinese Balloon Invasion of Washington stands as a testament to the unpredictability of history. It was a battle fought not only in the skies over the capital but also in the hearts and minds of the American people. While it remains a little-known chapter in history, it serves as a reminder that in times of crisis, innovation and resilience can thwart even the most audacious of plans. The balloons that once threatened the nation’s capital now drift into the annals of history, a testament to the indomitable spirit of those who defended their homeland.

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United Nations in Disarray: Is Its Relevance Fading?




The United Nations (UN) was founded in the aftermath of World War II with a noble vision: to promote international cooperation, maintain peace and security, and address global challenges collectively. Over the decades, it has played a crucial role in preventing conflicts, providing humanitarian aid, and fostering development worldwide. However, as the world has evolved, so too have the challenges facing the UN. In this blog post, we will explore the question of whether the UN has lost its relevance in the contemporary world.

Historical Significance of the United Nations

To understand the UN’s current relevance, we must first acknowledge its historical significance. The UN was established in 1945 with the signing of the United Nations Charter, which sought to prevent another world war by promoting diplomacy and international cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations, which had failed to prevent World War II.

One of the UN’s primary functions is to maintain international peace and security. It has played a pivotal role in mediating conflicts, deploying peacekeeping missions, and preventing the outbreak of wars between nations. Notable examples include the resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis and the peacekeeping efforts in Cyprus, Bosnia, and Kosovo.

The UN also prioritizes human rights, development, and humanitarian assistance. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948, set the foundation for international human rights standards. UN agencies like UNICEF and the World Food Programme (WFP) have made significant contributions to alleviating global poverty and suffering.

A.Challenges to UN Relevance

While the UN has achieved many milestones, it faces several challenges that have raised questions about its relevance in the modern world.

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1.Ineffectiveness in Conflict Resolution:

One of the primary functions of the UN is to prevent and resolve conflicts. However, its track record in this regard has been mixed. Conflicts in Syria, Yemen, and South Sudan have persisted for years despite UN involvement. The Security Council’s veto power, which gives the five permanent members (the P5) – the United States, Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom – disproportionate influence, has hindered effective decision-making.

2.Rising Nationalism and Sovereignty:

In recent years, there has been a resurgence of nationalism and a push for greater sovereignty among nations. Some argue that the UN’s influence has waned as more countries prioritize their own interests over international cooperation. The rise of populist leaders in various countries has challenged the multilateral approach that the UN embodies.

3.Bureaucracy and Inefficiency:

Critics point to the UN’s bureaucratic structure as a hindrance to its effectiveness. Complex decision-making processes, budgetary constraints, and inefficiencies within the organization have led to slow responses to global crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.Security Council Reform:

The structure of the UN Security Council, with its veto-wielding P5 members, has long been a subject of controversy. Many argue that this structure does not reflect the current geopolitical landscape and that it perpetuates power imbalances. Calls for Security Council reform to include more countries as permanent members have yet to see substantial progress.

5.Funding and Resource Constraints:

The UN relies on member states for funding, which can lead to financial instability and dependence on a few major contributors. Additionally, resource constraints often limit the UN’s ability to respond adequately to humanitarian crises and development needs.

B.Efforts to Address Challenges

Despite these challenges, the UN has not been passive in adapting to the changing global landscape.

1.Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):

The adoption of the SDGs in 2015 marked a significant shift in the UN’s approach to development. These 17 goals aim to address global issues such as poverty, inequality, climate change, and education by 2030. The SDGs emphasize a holistic and inclusive approach to development, encouraging member states to work together to achieve common objectives.

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2.Climate Change and Environmental Issues:

The UN has been at the forefront of global efforts to combat climate change. The Paris Agreement, reached in 2015, is a testament to international cooperation on this critical issue. The UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides scientific assessments that inform global climate policies.

3.Humanitarian Assistance:

UN agencies like the WFP and UNHCR continue to provide vital assistance to refugees and those affected by conflicts and disasters worldwide. Their work demonstrates the UN’s continued relevance in addressing humanitarian crises.

4.Peacekeeping and Mediation:

Despite challenges, the UN remains engaged in peacekeeping efforts in various regions. While it may not always achieve immediate success, the presence of UN peacekeepers can help stabilize situations and lay the groundwork for lasting peace.

5.Diplomacy and Conflict Resolution:

The UN continues to serve as a platform for diplomatic negotiations and conflict resolution. Even when solutions are elusive, the dialogue facilitated by the UN remains essential in preventing further escalation.


The question of whether the United Nations has lost its relevance is complex and multifaceted. While it faces numerous challenges, including inefficiency, conflicts, and calls for reform, the UN continues to play a vital role in addressing global issues. Its work in sustainable development, climate change, and humanitarian assistance underscores its importance.

To remain relevant and effective in the 21st century, the UN must adapt to the evolving global landscape. This includes addressing issues such as Security Council reform, streamlining its bureaucracy, and increasing transparency and accountability. Furthermore, member states must reaffirm their commitment to multilateralism and international cooperation.

In an interconnected world facing unprecedented challenges, the United Nations remains a symbol of hope for a more peaceful and prosperous future. Its relevance depends on the collective will of the international community to work together in pursuit of common goals. The UN’s mission, as outlined in its Charter, remains as important today as it was at its inception: to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, promote human rights, and foster social progress.

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